Tamarind is grown as a fruit that produces flavour in food. It is cultivated for special fruits, primarily grown in rainfed areas. Tamarind is a tropical plant of African land which is now produced in America, Australia and Southeast Asia. It is a very popular tree that gives fruit and helpful fuel wood. In India, tamarind is cultivated primarily in states like Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and Orissa. In Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh, tamarind is a flavouring spice.
Apart from this, tamarind is specially used while making sambar, rasam, Vatha kuzhambu and Puliyogare. Indian chutney is incomplete without tamarind, and its flowers are also utilised to make tasty dishes. If you also want to produce tamarind fruits, then in this article, you will learn how to cultivate tamarind and the advantages and disadvantages of tamarind.
Climate And Soil In Tamarind Cultivation
No particular land is required for tamarind cultivation. But in deep alluvial and loamy soil containing water, a high yield of tamarind is found. Apart from this, its plant also develops in sandy, loamy and saline soil.
The Tamarind plant is of tropical climate. It can also withstand hot winds and heat in summer easily. Moreover, winter frost has a harmful effect on the growth of plants.
Before cultivating the tamarind crop, the soil is tilled by ploughing the field. After this, the band is prepared to sow the plants in it. Plants have to be grown on these ridges only. Tamarind plants can grow well. For this, while preparing the field, the amount of rotted manure or vermicompost has to be mixed in the soil during planting and filled in the pits. Apart from this, the amount of chemical fertilizer is given based on the soil test.
Tamarind Seedlings Preparation
The planting of tamarind crops is done by preparing seedlings. First, irrigated land is chosen for the cultivation of plants. Then, after ploughing the field in March with the help of a Cultivator, prepare the beds for sowing seedlings. Apart from this, drains are also ready for the irrigation of beds. These beds are designed 1X5 m long and wide. After this, the seeds are planted from the second week of March to the first week of April. For proper germination of seeds, they should be soaked in water for 24 hours.
In the prepared beds, tamarind seeds are sown in rows at a depth of 6 to 7 cm and a distance of 15 to 20 cm. After a week, the seeds start to germinate, and after a month, the seeds ultimately germinate. During this period, watering must be done from time to time to maintain moisture in the field.
Pits are prepared in a field of one cubic foot for sowing nursery-grown plants. These pits are designed at a distance of 4X4 metres or 5X5 metres. Moreover, if you want to grow plants in the form of a garden, prepare holes of half a cubic metre at a distance of 10 to 12 metres. Remove the plants prepared in the nursery from the land and give the proper amount of water after planting in the field.
The pods can ripen fully on the tree to get the tamarind seeds. Then, they are harvested and gathered and dried thoroughly in strong sunlight for 10 to 12 days. The dried beans’ peel becomes loose and can easily be removed manually. From one tamarind pod, 8 to 12 seeds are collected, washed with water, dried, and stored. There are about 900 to 1000 seeds in a kilogram, and the number of light and small seeds can be from 1800 to 2000.
Irrigation And Weed Control
Regular irrigation should be done for tamarind plants. In the summer season, its plants should be watered according to the moisture content in the field, and while irrigating, take special care that there should be no water logging in the area. Moreover, in the winter season, irrigate the plants at an interval of 10 to 15 days, and in the rainy season, irrigation is done if needed.
Special attention should also be paid to weeds in tamarind crops. For this, weeding is done by natural ways to eliminate weeds according to the need.
Diseases And Treatment
Fungal disease of the Sclerotium rolfsii variety is seen on tamarind plants at the time of germination or after. This disease causes wilting in plants. To prevent this disease, cutting and removing diseased leaves, pods and twigs and sowing seeds should be treated with fungicide.
Apart from this, many types of insects also harm tamarind plants. In this, the stem hazarding insects mainly attack the leaves and beans, and this insect disease can also be seen in stored seeds. Therefore, to prevent this disease, spray insecticide on the tamarind crop, and before storing the seeds, treat them with pesticides.
Tamarind Crop Harvesting And Yield
It takes 7 to 8 years for tamarind plants to mature, and the plants prepared by grafting method start giving crops after 4 to 5 years. The yield is collected from January to April.
On average, 50 to 100 kg of beans can be produced from a tamarind tree, and a full-grown tree gives a yield of about 2 quintals of beans in a year.